Auditory therapy A.Tomatisa (Collection of articles)

 

About 40 years ago, a French otolaryngologist Alfred Tomatis made ​​some amazing discoveries were the impetus for the development of Tomatis method. This method has various names: "auditory training", "auditory stimulation" or "auditory therapy." Its purpose is to re-train a person to the hearing process, which improves the ability to study and development of languages ​​to communicate, increases creativity and positive effect on the social behavior of the individual.

Tomatis Method has helped thousands of children suffering from hearing problems, speech impairment, lack of concentration (DHQ), autism, as well as suffering from disorders with motor functions. His discoveries helped to fight the depression in adults learn foreign languages ​​faster, overcome difficulties in communication, increase creativity and efficiency.

A lot of musicians, singers and actors were able to improve their own professional skills, using Tomatis method. Finally, many reported positive psychological changes, such as the acquisition of self-confidence, increased energy, greater clarity of thought and a sense of wellbeing.

Today Tomatis method is used in more than 250 centers around the world. They are specialists in the fields of psychology, medicine, education, occupational therapy, and music.

Over the years, Dr. Tomatis developed a complicated theory, which is based on the interaction of hearing the voice. This brief review can only outline some of the main ideas in the theory of Tomatis. We can only hope that one day his work will be transferred to national experts, as they explain in detail the basis of the method and how it works. A significant number of scientific research and case studies confirm the effectiveness of this method (see below). In addition, clinical results obtained by practitioners argue that the Tomatis method works.

Ear

When we think of our ears, we usually focus on the process of listening. This, of course, the most obvious feature, but other than hearing ear performs several important functions that must be considered. They are all included in the Tomatis method. One of the most important functions of the ear - vestibular. The lobby, takes part in the management of balance, coordination, muscle tone and muscle of our eyes. Thanks to the lobby, we are able to navigate in the environment. Lobby - also an important transmitter of sensory information coming from our body to the brain. Children who have vestibular problems often have difficulty transferring sensory information.

Another part of the inner ear - the cochlea, it serves as a sound analyzer, which is particularly important for understanding speech. Vestibule and cochlea are connected and act as a relay station between the nervous system and the brain, which is responsible for the transmission of all sensory information. Tactile, visual and auditory signals pass through the vestibule and cochlea, but according to the theory of Tomatis, the ear functions are not limited to this.

Energy function

Tomatis also draws our attention to the fact that high-frequency sounds excite the brain, whereas low-frequency, on the contrary, contribute to the leakage power. For this reason, high-frequency sounds he calls "charges sound" and believes that the low frequency sounds c often tire us. They cause vibration of the internal organs, activating semicircular canals vestibule. If these sounds keep coming for a long time, they have a negative effect on the entire body. This effect can be easily seen in people who listen to heavy metal music (rap or rock). On the other hand, works by Mozart or Bach have quite the opposite effect.

Tomatis notes that when our brain "properly charged," we can achieve greater focus and concentration, organize, memorize, learn and work for long periods of time with little stress. When the brain is "well-charged", the man does not lack the energy needed for the building, the work of imagination and creativity. Most children and adults with a good ear for music gets a lot of "sound energy" and rarely lacks power or feelings of depression. Hyperactive children who are constantly moving, can "recharge" your brain through the vestibular action. People whose brains are not sufficiently "charged" probably can not be prepared for the problems that confronts them with our own, rapidly growing company.

Function of hearing

Hearing, and hearing is not the primary function of the ear. Tomatis draws a clear line between listening and hearing.

Hearing - a passive process; hearing - active and it requires us to use our ears in a proper way. We can have excellent hearing, but be poor listeners. Many children who have learning disabilities or attention deficit have excellent hearing, but can not read well or to focus. Their problem - the inability to listen. As a result, they can not concentrate and have difficulty with reading. If you want to find out if you or your child has problems with hearing, see the excellent Paul Madaul checklist at the end of this article.

The hearing - the ability to perceive the necessary information, and the ability to filter out unnecessary information. When we feel good, we can not pay attention to various stimuli coming from the external environment, or directly from us, it allows us to focus and concentrate without feeling confused and helpless in the influx of large amounts of information. We can sort and organize the information, determining its relevance, without feeling a sense of congestion. On the other hand, when the process of the hearing impaired, there are problems in education, in communication and social skills.

"Teaching listening, Tomatis developed, is intended to restore the ability to listen to the ears in a more efficient, organized and balanced manner. The goal is to improve the brain's ability to perceive and process different information. When the function is expanded or restored hearing, the brain shows a better ability to perceive and process signals from the environment. " (Quoted: Paul Madaule, LP and Valerie Dejean, OT, «The Listening Function»)

Dominant ear

To the surprise of many, we all have a dominant ear, and some have dominated right, the other - the left ear. Those with a dominant right ear can capture and process auditory information faster than people with a dominant left ear. Therefore, the "right-handed" are better able to manage your own voice and speech: intensity, frequency, timbre, rhythm and flow of sentences. Tomatis program allows clients to learn to use his right ear more effectively, in order to gain better control over the voice. In different situations it helps to maintain composure and confidence.

Several independent researchers, assessing the effects of Tomatis method for Zaika (Badenhorst, 1975), concluded that "individuals with a dominant right ear demonstrated superior ability to spontaneous and appropriate emotional response to different stimuli.Typically, the "right-handed", is a more open and responsive natures, which had a lower propensity to anxiety, tension, frustration and aggression. These results are fully consistent with the predictions of the theory of Tomatis. " (Quoted from: Van Jaarsveld and Duplessis, S. Afr. J. Psychology, 1988, 18 (4)).

Relationship ear and voice

Talking about the ear, we can not forget about the voice: they are related to each other in an unusual way. Based on the accumulated experimental data Tomatis in 1953 submitted a report to the French Academy of Sciences, which established the following law: "The voice reproduces only the sounds that the ear can hear."

As a result, improvement of hearing changes the voice. This phenomenon can be observed in singers with voice problems. In many cases, the cause of voice problems are hard of hearing, as the ear is unable to verify the accuracy of the sound to play. This leads to the fact that many of the singers begin to "squeeze out" of the sounds, rather than try to overcome this difficulty. Once hearing problems are solved, the voice regains its full potential. Not surprisingly, many famous singers, such as Maria Callas, consulted Tomatis center.

Children with hearing loss often have problems with learning and monotonic, flat and sometimes sharp voice. Sharp voice, for example, points to the inability to analyze the high harmonies and the dominance of the left ear. Improving hearing ability and developing child's right ear, you can see his voice begins to reproduce a rich range of sounds, and is precise, measured and rapid responses.

When a rumor

Early in his career, Tomatis argued that the fetus is in the womb, hear and listen to her voice. Scientific studies have confirmed this idea, which at the moment is this truth.

Ear embryo begins to fully function in the four and a half months. Henry Truby (1) reported that a six-month fetus moves his body to the rhythm of the speech of the mother. Based on an exhaustive review of the scientific literature, Tomatis (2) concluded that the mother's voice, not only serves as an emotional food for the child, but also prepares it for the acquisition of language skills after birth.

For this reason, Tomatis suggests using her mother to re-open the hearing process.Voice is passed through filters, recalling a sound that the fetus had heard in the womb. By the reaction of children and adults, it is clear that the use of the mother's voice has a strong impact: children are frequently calm, as if his voice calms them, and they show more love and affection, especially to his mother. Foster children reach better contact with his adoptive mother. Her mother is a solid foundation by which begins to form and develop the process of hearing, also affects the subsequent development of language skills. In general, the whole process is nothing more than an attempt to "reprogram" the various stages of human development through the symbolic experience.

Since Tomatis uses her mother as part of the therapeutic process, some people incorrectly concluded that the responsibility for the difficulties it shifts the child to the mother. It does not reflect any position of the Tomatis. The use of the mother's voice is the therapeutic tool by which is created or the bond between mother and child, which is not fully developed. Hundreds of studies and experiments indicate that this relationship is primordial - the basis of personal safety and start interacting with the world.

Using the voice of the mother, the child Tomatis seeks to instill a desire to reconnect with his mother and hear her voice for the first time. This "psychological" approach must be accompanied by concrete work, which aims - to rebuild the system of perception.Summarizing the above, we can say that the Tomatis method offers a clear system to a more harmonious and perfect development.

Hearing Program

Education hearings are conducted through the use of sound effects, which is generated by a special electronic device. To change the function of the hearing, intensive intervention is required from the start. First 15 days of using sound stimulation, for two hours a day.Subsequent blocks are usually shorter and conducted at intervals of one or two months.Active work with a microphone is used to help a child or adult to learn to listen to your own voice.

It really work?

Tomatis method passed many tests. He was particularly effective in addressing learning difficulties and behavioral problems solving. In a critical review of studies conducted in Canada, Stutt (3) concludes that the Tomatis method brings tangible benefits to the education system. Children who had been "hearing therapy," showed a significant increase in IQ (intelligence quotient), good reading skills, accelerating the processes of perception, and the ability to verbally express their thoughts and feelings (4, 5, 6, 7). Tim just recently completed a meta-analysis of Gilmore previous studies, confirming the conclusion Stutta.

Tomatis Center in Toronto (Canada) studied the results of the "auditory therapy" for more than 400 children and adolescents. All of them have shown good results in psychological and educational testing. In this trial, 95% of parents confirmed that the program has helped their children. They have seen the positive changes that can be expressed in the following parameters:

Improving communication skills - 89% 
The increase in concentration - 86% 
Reducing the level of frustration - 80% 
Reading comprehension - 85% 
Speech quality - 74% 
Memory - 73% 
Write the letters - 69% 
Maturity - 84%

Over the next six months, 83% of children have maintained and even developed their achievements. The remaining 14% of the children kept only some of the achievements, and only 3% lost acquired skills.

For several years the Tomatis method was used in some French schools with funds distributed by the Ministry of Education. Were selected children with the most severe learning difficulties. Despite the fact that the conditions of the program in an educational institution is far from ideal, the results were quite successful, so many parents and teachers have insisted on the need for the annual commemoration of such programs.

In 1983 De Brut (8) conducted a number of important experiments to investigate the effectiveness of the method Tomatis in working with people with developmental disabilities. Thirty people from a rehabilitation center in South Africa, at the age of 4 to 14 years, with a preliminary diagnosis of "retardation", but being able to sit and walk, were randomly divided into three groups, which were:

Group A: auditory stimulation (Tomatis) and sensory excitation program.

Group B: musical stimulation (no effect Tomatis) and the same program sensory excitation.

Group C: no effect.

The results showed that in the experimental groups, A and B there was an increase mental ability, but the changes in the group A were significantly higher than in group B. In group C have been no changes. One of the positive changes recorded in group A, there was a significant reduction in involuntary (spontaneous) responses and increased conscious targeted responses.

Currently, there are a lot of clinical evidence supporting the efficacy of the method Tomatis in working with children with autism. Dr. Joan Roy devoted a full investigation of the work of this issue. Probably in the near future it will be published. Investigated the effectiveness of the method in dealing with people in stuttering (9), anxiety and depression (12).

Audience testing capabilities

(From When Listening Comes Alive, by Paul Madaule, Moulin Publishing, 1994)

We can not "see" the hearing process, we can check it only indirectly - through the presence or absence of skills that are associated with it in some way. This checklist offers a directory of skills and allows you to independently evaluate the development of skills at Audience, your child, or your students. In it there is no rating scale. If any of these effects are related to you, they may reveal the underdeveloped Audience abilities.

The history of

Knowledge of these factors is extremely important because it can help detect and prevent problems with your hearing:

  • Pathology of pregnancy;
  • difficult birth;
  • Early separation from the mother;
  • delayed motor development;
  • delayed language development;
  • frequently occurring infectious diseases of the ear.

 

Receptive hearing.

The hearing, which is directed outward. It helps us to see the events of the world, that is, what happens at home, at work or in the classroom:

  • lack of fixing the attention;
  • distraction;
  • "Insensitivity" towards a certain sound;
  • misinterpretation of questions;
  • confusion of words, similar in sound;
  • the need for frequent repetition of certain words or phrases;
  • inability to perform serial commands. 
     

Expressive hearing

This local hearing, which we use to control your voice when we speak or sing:

  • "Flat" and the monotonous voice;
  • interrupted speech;
  • poor vocabulary;
  • simplified structure of the proposal;
  • abuse of stereotypical expressions;
  • failure to properly intone, sung melodies;
  • confusion of letters;
  • poor understanding of the reading material;
  • difficulty reading aloud;
  • inability to write from dictation. 
     

Motor skills

The hall, which is part of the inner ear responsible for balance, coordination and posture.These characters help to identify the presence of vestibular symptoms:

  • bad posture;
  • restless behavior;
  • clumsy, uncoordinated movements;
  • little sense of rhythm;
  • clumsy handwriting;
  • lack of organization;
  • confusion of "left" and "right" of the space;
  • poor physical development. 
     

The energy level

Ear acts as a generator, providing us with the energy needed for a full life. These phenomena may indicate problems with hearing:

  • difficulty in waking;
  • fatigue at the end of the day;
  • habit of saving for "later";
  • giperdeyatelnost;
  • tendency to depression;
  • feeling burdened problems. 
     

Behavioral and social adaptation

Causes the following problems are often a problem with listening to:

  • lack of confidence;
  • shyness;
  • lack of friends;
  • isolation (the tendency to avoid other);
  • irritability;
  • immaturity;
  • lack of interest in study / work;
  • negative attitude to school / work. 
     

Often listen to Mozart

Imagine a perfect, seemingly improbable situation for Russia. You came to the reception to the therapist about, say, vascular dystonia. Carrying out all necessary tests, the doctor hands you a prescription. Looking at him, you dumbfounded looks at the doctor.

"Mozart" - you mumble. "Mozart" - confirms the doctor. Actually, the recipe as it is written: "Mozart. 2 times a day for 1 hour " .

"Brad some" - you might say. Nothing like that. Music wise prized for centuries by doctors as a healing agent. In China, for example, can be found in pharmacies music albums - records or cassettes - titled "Digestion", "Insomnia", "Liver", "Kidney" ... Well, and so on. Almost the same thing exists in Japan, in India. However, the effect is stunning Doctors Mozart opened recently and is not yet fully elucidated. So far, one thing is clear: the music of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in its healing power far exceeds all other music.Listen to one of the amazing stories of the famous French actor Gerard Depardieu, cost at the time, many Western publications.

Zaika Depardieu

Fans of the great French actor, of course, noticed the amazing vibration of his voice. But we know that in the mid-60 Gerard was totally inarticulate young man, not capable to force more and stuttering to complete a single sentence. Studying the work of the actor explain the situation family problems, personal failure, low self-esteem and problems with education. The only thing at the time certainly distinguished Depardieu - this longing to be an actor.

Depardieu mentor in acting posted Gerard in Paris to a very famous doctor Alfred Tomatis - MD who has devoted many years to the study of healing effect of music, and especially the works of Mozart. Tomatis found that the cause of the vocal breakdowns and problems with the memory Depardieu is deeper it purely physiological difficulties - in the emotional sphere, and promised to help him. Depardieu said, that will be part of a course of treatment: surgery, medication or psychotherapy. Tomatis said, "I want you to come to the hospital ~ every day for two hours for a few weeks and listened to Mozart."

"Mozart?" - Asked puzzled Depardieu. 
"Mozart" - confirmed Tomatis.

The very next day Depardieu came to Tomatis Center to put on headphones and listen to the music of the great composer. After a few "musical procedures", he felt a significant improvement in his condition. He will establish the appetite and sleep, he felt a surge of energy. Soon, his speech became more distinct. A few months later Depardieu returned to acting school in a new self-confidence and, having finished it, was one of the actors expressed their generation.

"Before Tomatis - says Depardieu - I could not to complete any offer. He helped to round off my mind, taught me the synthesis and understanding of the process of thinking. "Practice again and again urged Tomatis is that, whatever the personal tastes and the composer of each individual listener, Mozart's music always calmed the patient, improves spatial representation and allowed to express themselves more clearly.

Why music heals?

First let's answer the question: What is sound? Of course, the vibration. The importance of vibration is said Michio and Aveline Kushi for his famous lectures on macrobiotics, delivered in Paris in 1978. In particular, the couple pointed cleaning power of vibrations that occur when a combination of singing, "AU-M '.

"Sing a 5, 6, 7 times in a row on the long exhale several times a day. This vibration is not only cleans, but also establishes a harmony between all your internal organs. Then, in the same way chant the mantra, "Su ..." It establishes a harmony between you and the world ... ". In the 78th such statements spouses seemed to most bullshit. Today, however, attitudes changed dramatically. In many ways, the credit here belongs to the Swiss doctor and engineer Hans Jenny, who explained and showed how sound can affect things. He experimented with crystals, liquid gases, with the participation of electrical impulses and vibrations, and found that it was the sound vibrations create unfinished, ever-changing geometries.

It is not difficult to imagine how much exposure to music on the cells, organs and tissues of the organism. Sound vibrations create energy fields that produce resonance and movement in the environment. We absorb the energy, and it changes the rhythm of our breathing, pulse, blood pressure, muscle tension, skin temperature, and so on. Jenny discovery helps to understand how music changes our mood, the state and even the shape of bodies. Work Lindy Rogers, a musician and a sociologist from New York, showed that vibration - music is born, can have a beneficial effect on the patient, and negative, if properly chosen. Having studied, such as the ability to perceive music patients under anesthesia during the operation, it concluded: "We never cease to hear."

Why Mozart?

But why Mozart? Why are not Bach, not Beethoven, not the Beatles? Mozart did not create a stunning effect, which was capable of mathematical genius of Bach. His music is not the wave of emotion cock like Beethoven. It relaxes the body does not like the folk melodies and moving it under the influence of music "stars" of rock. So what's the deal?Probably in the fact that Mozart remains mysterious, and affordable. His intelligence, charm and simplicity make us wiser.

Many of Mozart's music helps to find peace of mind. If it restores the energy balance and harmony in the body, performs a function to which all medical systems. Acupuncture, herbal medicine, nutrition, and other methods aimed at restoring energy balance, which we call health. Mozart's music, not too smooth, not too fast, not too quiet, not too loud - for some reason, "it is what we need."

Rhythms are known to affect the rhythm of the nervous system that control vast biological landscape within our body. It is not difficult to understand why, how important is the simplicity and clarity of the music of Mozart for our emotions and the body as a whole.

Can be likened to the effect of the music of various composers action of various dishes that also have an impact on our energy and physiology and can be beneficial and harmful.By the way, note that the delicacies are not always the most healthy food. Sometimes a simple fare much better served by us as a daily.

It is the same thing with music. It gives us a wealth of variety of sensations, but only certain forms streamline and stabilize our feelings. Tomatis believes that Mozart's music is unmatched in their ability to bring harmony in the human soul. It uses Mozart as his works clean better than any other music. In the case of Depardieu was chosen exactly the set of vibrations, which the body needs it most. According to Tomatis, Mozart is a perfectly balanced musical "dish", which contains all the necessary components.

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - a child who has the gift of prophecy, writing operas, symphonies, concertos and sonatas for piano, music for organ, clarinet and other instruments before he was twelve years old, and it seemed, knew that he was destined to die young, leave a world most amazing and harmonious musical vibrations, whose healing powers have yet to appreciate us and our descendants.

Fun Facts

The monks from the monastery ... Brittany discovered that cows give more fodder along with the music of Mozart and give more milk.

In Canada ... string quartets by Mozart performed directly on the urban areas, to streamline the traffic. Detected and the "side effect": as a result of decreased drug use.

It's interesting ... been observed that the Japanese, when Mozart heard near the yeast, then their presence turns the best vodka "sake."

Productivity of yeast used for making traditional rice vodka, increased 10-fold if the yeast "listened" by Mozart. The power of Mozart's music was the center of attention mainly due to the pioneering study by the University of California in the mid 90's. Then, a number of scientists studied the effects of Mozart on the mental capacity of students and increase their ability to learn the program material.

"The music of Mozart is able to" warm up "the brain" - says one of the researchers. He believes that Mozart's music has definitely a positive influence on the processes of higher brain activity required for math and chess. Following the publication of the results of these studies buyers literally swept off the shelves of music stores Mozart. However, certain effects have not only the music of Mozart.

Romantic Music

Emphasizes expression and feeling, often includes themes of individualism and mysticism helps elicit sympathy, compassion, and love. Examples of romantic composers serve Schubert, Schumann, Tchaikovsky, Chopin and Liszt.