The influence of tempo and rhythmic structure of music on human psychophysiological state

 

Musical culture in its deeper meaning has long gone beyond the circle of music lovers in the world. The widespread use of music to influence the condition of the person is taken almost total. Property of music to influence the condition of the person is currently being applied in the therapy sessions, advertising, film, etc.

Not been sufficiently studied modern psychological science direction and music therapy muzykosuggestii brings, including the unexpected results of the use of music to influence the state of mind, especially in a large scale.

The lack of recommendations based research, allows you to choose music nouveau "Kashpirovsky" and "Chumak" amateurish approach that positioned authoritarianism, implying that any product of this activity is the person designated by the property, regardless of compliance with production technology. That dilutes the very idea of ​​the proper use of music in the process pozitivirovaniya, treatment, rehabilitation and prevention of stress, depression and pathological tendencies of the mind.

At the moment the study of the influence of music as a separate area allocated in the "music therapy." It examines how changes in the course of disease with the music which was used during the treatment. In this case, the emphasis is not so much on the music as "a complex, multilevel matrix" (Yuri Ryzhov), and the vibrations of the sound waves.Often is allocated sound vibrations, indicating the numerical values ​​of sound frequencies that resonate with a certain portion of the brain. For example, a "low beta rhythm frequency of 15 Hz intensifies normal waking consciousness. High beta rhythm at 30 Hz causes a condition similar to that which occurs after the use of cocaine. Alpha rhythm frequency of 10.5 Hz is the state of deep relaxation.

For a number of preliminary data in this state marrow produces a large number of neuro-neptidov, improve immunity. Theta rhythm frequency of 7.5 Hz contributes to the situation characteristic of deep meditation. At low theta rhythm at 4 Hz occurs sometimes experience received in the literature as "travel outside the body." At frequencies below 4 Hz, a strong desire to go to sleep, difficulty waking consciousness conservation "(Goncharov, 2003).

Virtually all developments in the field of musical effects provide medical or, at best, and psychologists. But almost every work contains references to the results of hardware research, which measured the impact of particular sound frequencies or their combination, which is not the music, by definition. The dictionary Dahl "Music - is an art and a slender consonant sound combinations, the sequence (melody, melody, voice), and joint (harmony, concord, concord), is the art of it in action."

Hence the name of the direction as "music therapy" is a hasty and unfounded, although many therapists use in their sessions of treatment and rehabilitation is the music in the classical formulation, but rather talk about the positive effect of violin sounds or body.

In our view, the impact of music on the human condition should be studied with regard to all aspects of the musical structure. In the structure of a piece of music we can highlight the following:

- Body-motor aspect 
- Emotional and dynamic aspect 
- Reflexive meditative aspect 
- Suggestive trance-aspect

All aspects are directly related to the components of the internal structure of music.Component-structural analysis of music allows you to select a tempo-rhythmic, harmonic and melodic structure, which in turn, also have properties to emphasize the nuances of change psychophysical condition. This allows us to observe changes in the psycho-physical condition of a person over the sound of a musical work. The impact of music we see in this case only as a link to the musical sound of the psychophysical response in humans.

Bodily-motor aspect of the effect of music on the most ancient history of the elements of musical structure. This is due to simplicity of design playback - enough to knock a stick on the inside rotten logs, and have a chance of tempo and rhythmic pattern. Ancient people made the discovery and used the results to accompany the rites of initiation into warriors prepare for the hunt, which meant the active involvement of a body-motor component.

We link it with the tempo and rhythmic component of music. In music theory T Tempo - the speed of execution of a musical work. That is one and the same work can be executed at different rates. Here the change of the state depends on the speed of music perception specific person. In our opinion, the discrepancy rate music with the intention of the author removes much of the influence of music. For example, if the "Moonlight Sonata" by Beethoven to lose pace in the dance, then it will lose its romance and depth that few centuries immerses the listener in a special state of consciousness. Hence, it is important to apply all the relevant structures of music, the right tempo. Rate selection must be due to the objectives of the author.

The pace of the march, about 90 - 100 beats per minute. Natural bodily reaction to the experimental group in concert with the sound of the march was arbitrary imitation marching "on the spot". But, if in the case of a concert from the audience could "work" stereotype music, it must be said that, in general march was created precisely in order to cause such a reaction from those who heard it. Naturally emerged from the tradition of collective marching, march awakens a desire naturally.

Finer organization of motor activity create rhythmic patterns in music. Rhythm called on tnoshenie with durations of sounds in their sequence. Together in a certain sequence, duration, form the rhythmic sounds of the group (figure) that form the rhythmic pattern.

Tempo and rhythm creates its own special field of influence on the psycho-physical human response. The most common reaction of a person in the tempo and rhythmic structure of the music is dance. At youth discos, many dance songs begin with the sound of drummers (drums), which immediately indicates the pace at which gradually superimposed rhythmic pattern.

Young people begin to dance at once, because for them the dance does not need anything more emotionally dvigaelny "emissions" will occur even if the drums will sound alone throughout the composition without harmonic-melodic support. However, African tribes and surviving tribes of northern peoples, as well as Indians, in his famous ragas successfully use the properties of various tempo and rhythmic combinations, performed solely on drums.

Drumbeat - the best illustration of the human condition directly related to the tempo and rhythmic structure of music. During the experiments, which were carried out by us in groups of volunteers (30 - 120 people.), The discovery was made, that is mono drum, beating a simple rhythm can awaken the body-motor aspect of human response (have to dance the body - "the body into a dance Let "), when the rate reaches or exceeds the rate of heart beats (130-140 bpm).

At the same slow pace, which is 2 - 3 times slower heart, can a person into a trance. This property is used by shamans to enter into such state of the people involved in shamanic rituals.

One of the key elements of holotropic session is motivating music (Kozlov). Sessions held by the music of drums, were mostly from increased motor activity. Even those "holonavtov" who was passive in their physical manifestations, was told that they imagine shamans or Indian deities (depending on playing music.) But they did not allow themselves physically incorporated into playing in the minds of the dance because of all kinds of inhibitions, which at that time had not yet been sufficiently developed. That is, the degree of internal emancipation determines the ratio of internal (emotional-shaped) and external (active movement) reactions to the sound of drums in the fiery rhythms.

Tempo and rhythmic structure of music can be used as a method of diagnosing emotional rigidities and restrictions associated with the body. We have seen that man, allowing your body to respond appropriately to the dance rhythms, has fewer restrictions associated with the body. So to speak, around his body less morality. But if a person does not allow himself to join in sounding rhythm, gradually, staying in the affected area of ​​rhythm (the music), its problem areas (zones of control) are felt. For example, if the momentum started dancing rhythm, does not enter the body due to emotional distress, the person soon becomes annoying because it increases tension in the zone of protection. That is, the momentum flux directed to the body to be blocked in a familiar way, wasting more resources than usual because of the increased intensity of the pulses.

Features of the effect of musical tempo and rhythm helps to quickly dive into altered states of consciousness. Pace, supported only by the sound of drums, with the imposition of repetitive rhythmic patterns does not need more emotional and mental processing.This information will be able to "elaborate" and body. Emotion and thinking are exempt from participation in the response, prioritizing the body. If the reactions of the body coincide with the tempo and rhythmic sound, the body is "winning" the trust and does not require additional monitoring. The shift in this case is not a common occurrence, and the consciousness is in an altered state, which can be determined by changes in facial expressions and body movements. This is especially true of extreme tempo and rhythmic combinations. Not for nothing, the so-called "acid" youth infatuated with using drugs, prefers disco in the style of "House", "Trans" and "rave", where the tempo dance tracks reaches 170-180 beats per minute, and the sound of percussion instruments is always playing in the front terms and louder than any other sound combinations.

In one of the TV shows on deaf disabilities was the story of a dancer, who could not hear the music, but focused on the vibration of the floor, which created a loud sound of drums.Their dance is no different from the dances of their healthy counterparts, though built only on the tempo and rhythmic structure of the music that they danced.

Further research in this area, we believe, will provide more information and allow more detail to understand the impact of music on the human condition in general and highlight the aspects most effectively plunge into the right state of mind.