We see sound


"I weighed the sound and measure and count the 
In the words of the mystery craft entered. 
And I devised a clever wickedness - 
Betray their hardware living language ... " 

1. "Sound + color"? 
Properties of sound to cause the color images was noticed long ago. Much has been written about the color hearing Scriabin, who saw the musical sounds in color. The whole direction in art - color music - is based on this property of the sounds of music. 

There is evidence that the speech sounds, especially vowels, too, can be seen in color. A. Rimbaud even wrote a sonnet "Vowels," which sounds so painted: 

A - black, white - E and - red, Y - green; 
O - Blue: I tell them the secret in turn ... 

But the French linguist K. Nirop attributed entirely different vowel colors: And he thought - in blue, V - bright yellow, and - in red. German linguist A. Schlegel wrote that for him, I - Sky Blue, A - red, O - purple. But the Russian poet Alexander White claimed that he is a white, E - yellow-green, and - blue, V - black, G - bright orange. If you continue to call individual judgments about the color of vowels, every sound will be painted in all colors ofthe rainbow. 

So there are in this case at all any specific zvukotsvetovye conformity? Do not fancy it?Or maybe, by chance an unstable association between sound and color? And perhaps that sound communication - a consequence of exceptionally finely arranged mechanisms of perception of individual people? These questions were given different answers, but most agree on the fact that the relationship "speech sound - color" - a rare phenomenon isvery individual.

2. General provisions of the theory

Modern science recognizes the phenomenon exists only when it is either directly observed or reproducibly manifested in experiments or strictly evaluated. And in any case, the last word belongs to practice: it is necessary that the phenomenon is observable functioning or detect a trace of his actions. 

But where it comes to the mind of man, everything looks different. In this area of ​​science, both in the area of ​​"Roadside Picnic", gets yet rarely and with difficulty, and, entering, stumbles upon a strange "complete dummy" who reveal their tools can not.

Psychic phenomena often are not directly observed in experiments that are shown, then no, the calculation of yield is bad, and the traces of their operation uncertain, shaky, irregular. Especially in the subconscious. Here, for example, intuition. Everyone can remember the times when we feel the right decision or action have been suggested by our intuition.

Moreover, as revealed in the course of work on artificial intelligence, people in difficult situations by taking the decision not to try all possible options, and heuristically, subconsciously, intuitively finds the way. But on the other hand, the fact and intuition often fails. How to understand when intuition whispers to us the right decision, and when the tricky push us to a dead end? 

And so with zvukotsvetovymi correspondences. If they exist, then who is right - A. A. Rimbaud or White? Whose intuition is right? 

Idea of the experiment is simple: record the reactions of many of the subjects to a certain stimulus, followed by a statistical analysis of the material to identify the main trends in the reactions. Technique registration diverse: the subjects are presented or speech sounds - it is required for them to pick up color, or are subject to various color cards - required write on them the sounds, or sounds are given the task to build the color of, say, "most red" to "the least of red," from "the blue" to "least-blue", etc. 

Many such experiments with thousands of informants indicated that the vast majority of subjects were stained for at least the vowels quite definitely. Especially unanimous agreement on three vowels - A, E, I. Sound and letter (zvukobukvu) And quite consistently called red, E - clearly green, and I - definitely blue. Zvukobukvu about all consider fair and bright, but at least the majority of participants call it yellow, still quite common responses: "white." It turns out that it is sunny. 

Note that linguists consider the vowels A, E, and basic reference for the human vocal apparatus and all major languages. Physicists say the main vowel corresponding to thesecolors, because they provide a combination of all the other colors and shades. What is and is color photography, color TV. No wonder that in the language of correspondence is the main color were the most precise? 

Apparently, there appears "collective intuition" people: the color structure of the world was reflected in the color device language. The names of the primary colors found in the speech of the most common, and the sounds A, D, E, and the most frequent of the vowels. And between the names of the primary colors and these vowels, in turn, is a correlation: the name has a certain color, respectively, "colored" sound, and it is in the word of the most important, the impact position: red, blue. 

The rest of the vowels have a toning color, like the color with which they are connected to the same link is a less well-observed - there are more variety of opinions of subjects.So, I - is associated with darker shades of blue: dark blue, dark blue, dark blue-green, dark purple. Zvukobukva S also binds to the shades of blue, but with the light cyan, light magenta. 

Interestingly behaves zvukobukva E. Of writing is similar to that of E, and in sound to On.And the color on it quite definitely is between zheltoyO E and green. Approximately half of the subjects called it yellow and half - green. So that E - light yellow-green. 

But I painted almost the same as A, except that is perceived as more light and bright. 

As for N, then there should not talk about color, but rather the characteristics of light. If O - zvukobukva light, N - zvukobukva gloom of darkness. It is the darkest of all the vowels, and her subjects unanimously give the darkest features - dark brown or black. 

Curiously, the perception is, strictly speaking, the consonant J clearly influenced the graphic form of the letter J, transmitting the sound. Similarity with Q and led to a similar color estimates - J zvukobukva perceived as blue, though with less certainty than I. 

Letter E had to be excluded from the analysis. Although it conveys almost the same sound, which in most cases transmitted by the letter E, Green E zvukobukva the responses of the subjects not: another form of character. In general, no specific color is not associated with E. Since E and occurs rarely in texts (much less all the other vowels), for further analysis of the texts it was decided not to consider. 

Of course, not all correspond to the same zvukotsvetovye firmly fixed in the subconscious. There are subjects that are in all the experiments show a clear and consistent results that coincide with the "collective opinion" of all respondents, and there are those whose answers in different experiments contradictory, unstable, and their answers no specific coloration can not be traced. Well, well, because color-blind can not see the color of objects, but it does not mean that the color of objects does not exist. It is important that the majority of participants as a whole consistently and fairly uniform set well-defined relationship between sound and color, but almost no one is aware of.

The results of the experiment on zvukotsvetovym conformity: 

3. The implementation of the theory in poetic texts

If compliance with the sounds of speech, there are certain colors, even in the subconscious, they should appear somewhere, zvukotsvet must somehow function in speech. And perhaps above all to look for symptoms zvukotsvetovyh haloes in poetry,where audio side is especially important. Zvukotsveta effect may play a role in the case where the poem is created certain color painting, and drawing the line of vowels should be supported, "light up" the picture sounds that color. 

If so, then it is natural to expect that in the description, for example, red objects and events in the text will emphasize the role of red A and I, and they will meet more often than usual, especially in the most important and most visible positions (for example, in shock) . illustrate something blue will be accompanied by injecting blue, v, W, Green - injection E, E, etc. 

As soon start testing this hypothesis, in both dry statistical calculations was in front of a live game show zvukotsvetovyh halo of poetic language is amazing with the unexpected, with its diversity and compliance conceptual meaning and common sense expressive figurative works. Judge for yourself. 

Blok has a poem he wrote inspired by the painting by Vasnetsov "Gamayun, ominous bird." A poem about the terrible prophecy passes tragic coloring picture - dark-purple color executions, fire and blood. 

If the initial hypothesis is correct, then the fabric of the poem zvukobukvennoy should meet more often than it should be the norm, red A, B, and dark, gloomy U, N, is not it? 

Since the problem itself zvukotsveta and analysis of poems from this point of view it is very unusual that a claim that this is true, will certainly not enough. The normal reaction of anyone who first hears about zvukotsvete in poetry: "This can not be!" And on the computer calculation often viewed with a secret confidence trick question. Therefore, at least briefly describe the method of computer analysis of this and other poems, which will be discussed here. 

The text of the poem (including the title) count the number of each of the 10 zvukobukvlisted in the table. To take into account the special role of stressed vowels, they doubled the score. Since E, I, E, J associated only with shades of primary colors and also because they occur infrequently, the independent significance of the verse in zvukotsvetovoy picture they have not. Therefore end up in the main vowel. Since zvukobukva E was two-tone, its amount is divided equally between D and E. Blueness J is weak, so the number ofJ cut in half, and only then end up in I. Calculated as the number of letters with double shock (value N). 

Then determined by the proportion (frequency) of each vowel in the text of the poem (Pk) and unit amplitude of oscillation for this text:

Received particular compared with the normal (average for language), and compute the normalized difference of these frequency to determine accident or not observed in the frequency of the poem different from normal and how different: